Convention relating to the Status of Refugees
Adopted on 28 July 1951 by the United Nations
Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Status of Refugees and
Stateless Persons convened under General Assembly resolution 429 (V)
of 14 December 1950
Entry into force: 22 April 1954, in accordance with
The High Contracting Parties ,
Considering that the Charter of the United Nations and the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights approved on 10 December 1948
by the General Assembly have affirmed the principle that human
beings shall enjoy fundamental rights and freedoms without
Considering that the United Nations has, on various occasions,
manifested its profound concern for refugees and endeavoured to
assure refugees the widest possible exercise of these fundamental
rights and freedoms,
Considering that it is desirable to revise and consolidate
previous international agreements relating to the status of refugees
and to extend the scope of and the protection accorded by such
instruments by means of a new agreement,
Considering that the grant of asylum may place unduly heavy
burdens on certain countries, and that a satisfactory solution of a
problem of which the United Nations has recognized the international
scope and nature cannot therefore be achieved without international
Expressing the wish that all States, recognizing the social and
humanitarian nature of the problem of refugees, will do everything
within their power to prevent this problem from becoming a cause of
tension between States,
Noting that the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees is
charged with the task of supervising international conventions
providing for the protection of refugees, and recognizing that the
effective co-ordination of measures taken to deal with this problem
will depend upon the co-operation of States with the High
Have agreed as follows :
Article 1. - Definition of the term "refugee"
A. For the purposes of the present Convention, the term
"refugee" shall apply to any person who:
(1) Has been considered a refugee under the Arrangements of
12 May 1926 and 30 June 1928 or under the Conventions of 28 October
1933 and 10 February 1938, the Protocol of 14 September 1939 or the
Constitution of the International Refugee Organization;
Decisions of non-eligibility taken by the International Refugee
Organization during the period of its activities shall not prevent
the status of refugee being accorded to persons who fulfil the
conditions of paragraph 2 of this section;
(2) As a result of events occurring before 1 January 1951
and owing to well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of
race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group
or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and
is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of
the protection of that country; or who, not having a nationality and
being outside the country of his former habitual residence as a
result of such events, is unable or, owing to such fear, is
unwilling to return to it.
In the case of a person who has more than one nationality, the
term "the country of his nationality" shall mean each of the
countries of which he is a national, and a person shall not be
deemed to be lacking the protection of the country of his
nationality if, without any valid reason based on well-founded fear,
he has not availed himself of the protection of one of the countries
of which he is a national.
B. (1) For the purposes of this Convention, the words
"events occurring before 1 January 1951" in article 1, section A,
shall be understood to mean either ( a ) "events occurring in
Europe before 1 January 1951"; or ( b ) "events occurring in Europe
or elsewhere before 1 January 1951"; and each Contracting State
shall make a declaration at the time of signature, ratification or
accession, specifying which of these meanings it applies for the
purpose of its obligations under this Convention.
(2) Any Contracting State which has adopted alternative ( a ) may
at any time extend its obligations by adopting alternative ( b ) by
means of a notification addressed to the Secretary-General of the
C. This Convention shall cease to apply to any person
falling under the terms of section A if:
(1) He has voluntarily re-availed himself of the protection
of the country of his nationality; or
(2) Having lost his nationality, he has voluntarily
reacquired it; or
(3) He has acquired a new nationality, and enjoys the
protection of the country of his new nationality; or
(4) He has voluntarily re-established himself in the country
which he left or outside which he remained owing to fear of
(5) He can no longer, because the circumstances in
connection with which he has been recognized as a refugee have
ceased to exist, continue to refuse to avail himself of the
protection of the country of his nationality;
Provided that this paragraph shall not apply to a refugee falling
under section A (1) of this article who is able to invoke
compelling reasons arising out of previous persecution for refusing
to avail himself of the protection of the country of nationality;
(6) Being a person who has no nationality he is, because the
circumstances in connection with which he has been recognized as a
refugee have ceased to exist, able to return to the country of his
former habitual residence;
Provided that this paragraph shall not apply to a refugee falling
under section A (1) of this article who is able to invoke compelling
reasons arising out of previous persecution for refusing to return
to the country of his former habitual residence.
D. This Convention shall not apply to persons who are at
present receiving from organs or agencies of the United Nations
other than the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
protection or assistance.
When such protection or assistance has ceased for any reason,
without the position of such persons being definitively settled in
accordance with the relevant resolutions adopted by the General
Assembly of the United Nations, these persons shall ipso facto be
entitled to the benefits of this Convention.
E. This Convention shall not apply to a person who is
recognized by the competent authorities of the country in which he
has taken residence as having the rights and obligations which are
attached to the possession of the nationality of that country.
F. The provisions of this Convention shall not apply to any
person with respect to whom there are serious reasons for
( a ) He has committed a crime against peace, a war crime,
or a crime against humanity, as defined in the international
instruments drawn up to make provision in respect of such crimes;
( b ) He has committed a serious non-political crime outside
the country of refuge prior to his admission to that country as a
( c ) He has been guilty of acts contrary to the purposes
and principles of the United Nations.
Article 2. - General obligations
Every refugee has duties to the country in which he finds
himself, which require in particular that he conform to its laws and
regulations as well as to measures taken for the maintenance of
Article 3. - Non-discrimination
The Contracting States shall apply the provisions of this
Convention to refugees without discrimination as to race, religion
or country of origin.
Article 4. - Religion
The Contracting States shall accord to refugees within their
territories treatment at least as favourable as that accorded to
their nationals with respect to freedom to practise their religion
and freedom as regards the religious education of their children.
Article 5. - Rights granted apart from this Convention
Nothing in this Convention shall be deemed to impair any rights
and benefits granted by a Contracting State to refugees apart from
Article 6. - The term "in the same circumstances"
For the purposes of this Convention, the term "in the same
circumstances" implies that any requirements (including requirements
as to length and conditions of sojourn or residence) which the
particular individual would have to fulfil for the enjoyment of the
right in question, if he were not a refugee, must be fulfilled by
him, with the exception of requirements which by their nature a
refugee is incapable of fulfilling.
Article 7. - Exemption from reciprocity
1. Except where this Convention contains more favourable
provisions, a Contracting State shall accord to refugees the same
treatment as is accorded to aliens generally.
2. After a period of three years' residence, all refugees
shall enjoy exemption from legislative reciprocity in the territory
of the Contracting States.
3. Each Contracting State shall continue to accord to
refugees the rights and benefits to which they were already
entitled, in the absence of reciprocity, at the date of entry into
force of this Convention for that State.
4. The Contracting States shall consider favourably the
possibility of according to refugees, in the absence of reciprocity,
rights and benefits beyond those to which they are entitled
according to paragraphs 2 and 3, and to extending exemption from
reciprocity to refugees who do not fulfil the conditions provided
for in paragraphs 2 and 3.
5. The provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3 apply both to the
rights and benefits referred to in articles 13, 18, 19, 21 and 22 of
this Convention and to rights and benefits for which this Convention
does not provide.
Article 8. - Exemption from exceptional measures
With regard to exceptional measures which may be taken against
the person, property or interests of nationals of a foreign State,
the Contracting States shall not apply such measures to a refugee
who is formally a national of the said State solely on account of
such nationality. Contracting States which, under their legislation,
are prevented from applying the general principle expressed in this
article, shall, in appropriate cases, grant exemptions in favour of
Article 9. - Provisional measures
Nothing in this Convention shall prevent a Contracting State, in
time of war or other grave and exceptional circumstances, from
taking provisionally measures which it considers to be essential to
the national security in the case of a particular person, pending a
determination by the Contracting State that that person is in fact a
refugee and that the continuance of such measures is necessary in
his case in the interests of national security.
Article 10. - Continuity of residence
1. Where a refugee has been forcibly displaced during the
Second World War and removed to the territory of a Contracting
State, and is resident there, the period of such enforced sojourn
shall be considered to have been lawful residence within that
2. Where a refugee has been forcibly displaced during the
Second World War from the territory of a Contracting State and has,
prior to the date of entry into force of this Convention, returned
there for the purpose of taking up residence, the period of
residence before and after such enforced displacement shall be
regarded as one uninterrupted period for any purposes for which
uninterrupted residence is required.
Article 11. - Refugee seamen
In the case of refugees regularly serving as crew members on
board a ship flying the flag of a Contracting State, that State
shall give sympathetic consideration to their establishment on its
territory and the issue of travel documents to them or their
temporary admission to its territory particularly with a view to
facilitating their establishment in another country.
Article 12. - Personal status
1. The personal status of a refugee shall be governed by the
law of the country of his domicile or, if he has no domicile, by the
law of the country of his residence.
2. Rights previously acquired by a refugee and dependent on
personal status, more particularly rights attaching to marriage,
shall be respected by a Contracting State, subject to compliance, if
this be necessary, with the formalities required by the law of that
State, provided that the right in question is one which would have
been recognized by the law of that State had he not become a
Article 13. - Movable and immovable property
The Contracting States shall accord to a refugee treatment as
favourable as possible and, in any event, not less favourable than
that accorded to aliens generally in the same circumstances, as
regards the acquisition of movable and immovable property and other
rights pertaining thereto, and to leases and other contracts
relating to movable and immovable property.
Article 14. - Artistic rights and industrial property
In respect of the protection of industrial property, such as
inventions, designs or models, trade marks, trade names, and of
rights in literary, artistic and scientific works, a refugee shall
be accorded in the country in which he has his habitual residence
the same protection as is accorded to nationals of that country. In
the territory of any other Contracting States, he shall be accorded
the same protection as is accorded in that territory to nationals of
the country in which he has his habitual residence.
Article 15. - Right of association
As regards non-political and non-profit-making associations and
trade unions the Contracting States shall accord to refugees
lawfully staying in their territory the most favourable treatment
accorded to nationals of a foreign country, in the same
Article 16. - Access to courts
1. A refugee shall have free access to the courts of law on
the territory of all Contracting States.
2. A refugee shall enjoy in the Contracting State in which
he has his habitual residence the same treatment as a national in
matters pertaining to access to the courts, including legal
assistance and exemption from cautio judicatum solvi .
3. A refugee shall be accorded in the matters referred to in
paragraph 2 in countries other than that in which he has his
habitual residence the treatment granted to a national of the
country of his habitual residence.
Article 17. - Wage-earning employment
1. The Contracting States shall accord to refugees lawfully
staying in their territory the most favourable treatment accorded to
nationals of a foreign country in the same circumstances, as regards
the right to engage in wage-earning employment.
2. In any case, restrictive measures imposed on aliens or
the employment of aliens for the protection of the national labour
market shall not be applied to a refugee who was already exempt from
them at the date of entry into force of this Convention for the
Contracting State concerned, or who fulfils one of the following
( a ) He has completed three years' residence in the
( b ) He has a spouse possessing the nationality of the
country of residence. A refugee may not invoke the benefit of this
provision if he has abandoned his spouse;
( c ) He has one or more children possessing the nationality
of the country of residence.
3. The Contracting States shall give sympathetic
consideration to assimilating the rights of all refugees with regard
to wage-earning employment to those of nationals, and in particular
of those refugees who have entered their territory pursuant to
programmes of labour recruitment or under immigration schemes.
Article 18. - Self-employment
The Contracting States shall accord to a refugee lawfully in
their territory treatment as favourable as possible and, in any
event, not less favourable than that accorded to aliens generally in
the same circumstances, as regards the right to engage on his own
account in agriculture, industry, handicrafts and commerce and to
establish commercial and industrial companies.
Article 19. - Liberal professions
1. Each Contracting State shall accord to refugees lawfully
staying in their territory who hold diplomas recognized by the
competent authorities of that State, and who are desirous of
practising a liberal profession, treatment as favourable as possible
and, in any event, not less favourable than that accorded to aliens
generally in the same circumstances.
2. The Contracting States shall use their best endeavours
consistently with their laws and constitutions to secure the
settlement of such refugees in the territories, other than the
metropolitan territory, for whose international relations they are
Article 20. - Rationing
Where a rationing system exists, which applies to the population
at large and regulates the general distribution of products in short
supply, refugees shall be accorded the same treatment as nationals.
Article 21. - Housing
As regards housing, the Contracting States, in so far as the
matter is regulated by laws or regulations or is subject to the
control of public authorities, shall accord to refugees lawfully
staying in their territory treatment as favourable as possible and,
in any event, not less favourable than that accorded to aliens
generally in the same circumstances.
Article 22. - Public education
1. The Contracting States shall accord to refugees the same
treatment as is accorded to nationals with respect to elementary
2. The Contracting States shall accord to refugees treatment
as favourable as possible, and, in any event, not less favourable
than that accorded to aliens generally in the same circumstances,
with respect to education other than elementary education and, in
particular, as regards access to studies, the recognition of foreign
school certificates, diplomas and degrees, the remission of fees and
charges and the award of scholarships.
Article 23. - Public relief
The Contracting States shall accord to refugees lawfully staying
in their territory the same treatment with respect to public relief
and assistance as is accorded to their nationals.
Article 24. - Labour legislation and social security
1. The Contracting States shall accord to refugees lawfully
staying in their territory the same treatment as is accorded to
nationals in respect of the following matters;
( a ) In so far as such matters are governed by laws or
regulations or are subject to the control of administrative
authorities: remuneration, including family allowances where these
form part of remuneration, hours of work, overtime arrangements,
holidays with pay, restrictions on home work, minimum age of
employment, apprenticeship and training, women's work and the work
of young persons, and the enjoyment of the benefits of collective
( b ) Social security (legal provisions in respect of
employment injury, occupational diseases, maternity, sickness,
disability, old age, death, unemployment, family responsibilities
and any other contingency which, according to national laws or
regulations, is covered by a social security scheme), subject to the
(i) There may be appropriate arrangements for the maintenance of
acquired rights and rights in course of acquisition;
(ii) National laws or regulations of the country of
residence may prescribe special arrangements concerning benefits or
portions of benefits which are payable wholly out of public funds,
and concerning allowances paid to persons who do not fulfil the
contribution conditions prescribed for the award of a normal
2. The right to compensation for the death of a refugee
resulting from employment injury or from occupational disease shall
not be affected by the fact that the residence of the beneficiary is
outside the territory of the Contracting State.
3. The Contracting States shall extend to
refugees the benefits of agreements concluded between them, or which
may be concluded between them in the future, concerning the
maintenance of acquired rights and rights in the process of
acquisition in regard to social security, subject only to the
conditions which apply to nationals of the States signatory to the
agreements in question.
4. The Contracting States will give sympathetic
consideration to extending to refugees so far as possible the
benefits of similar agreements which may at any time be in force
between such Contracting States and non-contracting States.
Article 25. - Administrative assistance
1. When the exercise of a right by a refugee would normally
require the assistance of authorities of a foreign country to whom
he cannot have recourse, the Contracting States in whose territory
he is residing shall arrange that such assistance be afforded to him
by their own authorities or by an international authority.
2. The authority or authorities mentioned in paragraph 1
shall deliver or cause to be delivered under their supervision to
refugees such documents or certifications as would normally be
delivered to aliens by or through their national authorities.
3. Documents or certifications so delivered shall stand in
the stead of the official instruments delivered to aliens by or
through their national authorities, and shall be given credence in
the absence of proof to the contrary.
4. Subject to such exceptional treatment as may be granted
to indigent persons, fees may be charged for the services mentioned
herein, but such fees shall be moderate and commensurate with those
charged to nationals for similar services.
5. The provisions of this article shall be without prejudice
to articles 27 and 28.
Article 26. - Freedom of movement
Each Contracting State shall accord to refugees lawfully in its
territory the right to choose their place of residence and to move
freely within its territory subject to any regulations applicable to
aliens generally in the same circumstances.
Article 27. - Identity papers
The Contracting States shall issue identity papers to any refugee
in their territory who does not possess a valid travel document.
Article 28. - Travel documents
1. The Contracting States shall issue to refugees lawfully
staying in their territory travel documents for the purpose of
travel outside their territory, unless compelling reasons of
national security or public order otherwise require, and the
provisions of the Schedule to this Convention shall apply with
respect to such documents. The Contracting States may issue such a
travel document to any other refugee in their territory; they shall
in particular give sympathetic consideration to the issue of such a
travel document to refugees in their territory who are unable to
obtain a travel document from the country of their lawful residence.
2. Travel documents issued to refugees under previous
international agreements by Parties thereto shall be recognized and
treated by the Contracting States in the same way as if they had
been issued pursuant to this article.
Article 29. - Fiscal charges
1. The Contracting States shall not impose upon refugees
duties, charges or taxes, of any description whatsoever, other or
higher than those which are or may be levied on their nationals in
2. Nothing in the above paragraph shall prevent the
application to refugees of the laws and regulations concerning
charges in respect of the issue to aliens of administrative
documents including identity papers.
Article 30. - Transfer of assets
1. A Contracting State shall, in conformity with its laws
and regulations, permit refugees to transfer assets which they have
brought into its territory, to another country where they have been
admitted for the purposes of resettlement.
2. A Contracting State shall give sympathetic consideration
to the application of refugees for permission to transfer assets
wherever they may be and which are necessary for their resettlement
in another country to which they have been admitted.
Article 31. - Refugees unlawfully in the country of refuge
1. The Contracting States shall not impose penalties, on
account of their illegal entry or presence, on refugees who, coming
directly from a territory where their life or freedom was threatened
in the sense of article 1, enter or are present in their territory
without authorization, provided they present themselves without
delay to the authorities and show good cause for their illegal entry
2. The Contracting States shall not apply to the movements
of such refugees restrictions other than those which are necessary
and such restrictions shall only be applied until their status in
the country is regularized or they obtain admission into another
country. The Contracting States shall allow such refugees a
reasonable period and all the necessary facilities to obtain
admission into another country.
Article 32. - Expulsion
1. The Contracting States shall not expel a refugee lawfully
in their territory save on grounds of national security or public
2. The expulsion of such a refugee shall be only in
pursuance of a decision reached in accordance with due process of
law. Except where compelling reasons of national security otherwise
require, the refugee shall be allowed to submit evidence to clear
himself, and to appeal to and be represented for the purpose before
competent authority or a person or persons specially designated by
the competent authority.
3. The Contracting States shall allow such a refugee a
reasonable period within which to seek legal admission into another
country. The Contracting States reserve the right to apply during
that period such internal measures as they may deem necessary.
Article 33. - Prohibition of expulsion or return ("refoulement")
1. No Contracting State shall expel or return (" refouler
") a refugee in any manner whatsoever to the frontiers of
territories where his life or freedom would be threatened on account
of his race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular
social group or political opinion.
2. The benefit of the present provision may not, however, be
claimed by a refugee whom there are reasonable grounds for regarding
as a danger to the security of the country in which he is, or who,
having been convicted by a final judgement of a particularly serious
crime, constitutes a danger to the community of that country.
Article 34. - Naturalization
The Contracting States shall as far as possible facilitate the
assimilation and naturalization of refugees. They shall in
particular make every effort to expedite naturalization proceedings
and to reduce as far as possible the charges and costs of such
EXECUTORY AND TRANSITORY PROVISIONS
Article 35. - Co-operation of the national authorities with the
1. The Contracting States undertake to co-operate with the
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, or any
other agency of the United Nations which may succeed it, in the
exercise of its functions, and shall in particular facilitate its
duty of supervising the application of the provisions of this
2. In order to enable the Office of the High Commissioner or
any other agency of the United Nations which may succeed it, to make
reports to the competent organs of the United Nations, the
Contracting States undertake to provide them in the appropriate form
with information and statistical data requested concerning:
( a ) The condition of refugees,
( b ) The implementation of this Convention, and
( c ) Laws, regulations and decrees which are, or may
hereafter be, in force relating to refugees.
Article 36. - Information on national legislation
The Contracting States shall communicate to the Secretary-General
of the United Nations the laws and regulations which they may adopt
to ensure the application of this Convention.
Article 37. - Relation to previous conventions
Without prejudice to article 28, paragraph 2, of this Convention,
this Convention replaces, as between Parties to it, the Arrangements
of 5 July 1922, 31 May 1924, 12 May 1926, 30 June 1928 and 30 July
1935, the Conventions of 28 October 1933 and 10 February 1938, the
Protocol of 14 September 1939 and the Agreement of 15 October 1946.
Article 38. - Settlement of disputes
Any dispute between Parties to this Convention relating to its
interpretation or application, which cannot be settled by other
means, shall be referred to the International Court of Justice at
the request of any one of the parties to the dispute.
Article 39. - Signature, ratification and accession
1. This Convention shall be opened for signature at Geneva
on 28 July 1951 and shall thereafter be deposited with the
Secretary-General of the United Nations. It shall be open for
signature at the European Office of the United Nations from 28 July
to 31 August 1951 and shall be re-opened for signature at the
Headquarters of the United Nations from 17 September 1951 to 31
2. This Convention shall be open for signature on behalf of
all States Members of the United Nations, and also on behalf of any
other State invited to attend the Conference of Plenipotentiaries on
the Status of Refugees and Stateless Persons or to which an
invitation to sign will have been addressed by the General Assembly.
It shall be ratified and the instruments of ratification shall be
deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
3. This Convention shall be open from 28 July 1951 for
accession by the States referred to in paragraph 2 of this article.
Accession shall be effected by the deposit of an instrument of
accession with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Article 40. - Territorial application clause
1. Any State may, at the time of signature, ratification or
accession, declare that this Convention shall extend to all or any
of the territories for the international relations of which it is
responsible. Such a declaration shall take effect when the
Convention enters into force for the State concerned.
2. At any time thereafter any such extension shall be made
by notification addressed to the Secretary-General of the United
Nations and shall take effect as from the ninetieth day after the
day of receipt by the Secretary-General of the United Nations of
this notification, or as from the date of entry into force of the
Convention for the State concerned, whichever is the later.
3. With respect to those territories to which this
Convention is not extended at the time of signature, ratification or
accession, each State concerned shall consider the possibility of
taking the necessary steps in order to extend the application of
this Convention to such territories, subject, where necessary for
constitutional reasons, to the consent of the Governments of such
Article 41. - Federal clause
In the case of a Federal or non-unitary State, the following
provisions shall apply:
( a ) With respect to those articles of this Convention that
come within the legislative jurisdiction of the federal legislative
authority, the obligations of the Federal Government shall to this
extent be the same as those of parties which are not Federal States;
( b ) With respect to those articles of this Convention that
come within the legislative jurisdiction of constituent States,
provinces or cantons which are not, under the constitutional system
of the Federation, bound to take legislative action, the Federal
Government shall bring such articles with a favourable
recommendation to the notice of the appropriate authorities of
States, provinces or cantons at the earliest possible moment;
( c ) A Federal State Party to this Convention shall, at the
request of any other Contracting State transmitted through the
Secretary-General of the United Nations, supply a statement of the
law and practice of the Federation and its constituent units in
regard to any particular provision of the Convention showing the
extent to which effect has been given to that provision by
legislative or other action.
Article 42. - Reservations
1. At the time of signature, ratification or accession, any
State may make reservations to articles of the Convention other than
to articles 1, 3, 4, 16 (1), 33, 36-46 inclusive.
2. Any State making a reservation in accordance with
paragraph 1 of this article may at any time withdraw the reservation
by a communication to that effect addressed to the Secretary-General
of the United Nations.
Article 43. - Entry into force
1. This Convention shall come into force on the ninetieth
day following the day of deposit of the sixth instrument of
ratification or accession.
2. For each State ratifying or acceding to the Convention
after the deposit of the sixth instrument of ratification or
accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth
day following the date of deposit by such State of its instrument of
ratification or accession.
Article 44. - Denunciation
1. Any Contracting State may denounce this Convention at any
time by a notification addressed to the Secretary-General of the
2. Such denunciation shall take effect for the Contracting
State concerned one year from the date upon which it is received by
the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
3. Any State which has made a declaration or notification
under article 40 may, at any time thereafter, by a notification to
the Secretary-General of the United Nations, declare that the
Convention shall cease to extend to such territory one year after
the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary-General.
Article 45. - Revision
1. Any Contracting State may request revision of this
Convention at any time by a notification addressed to the
Secretary-General of the United Nations.
2. The General Assembly of the United Nations shall
recommend the steps, if any, to be taken in respect of such request.
Article 46. - Notifications by the Secretary-General of the
The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform all
Members of the United Nations and non-member States referred to in
( a ) Of declarations and notifications in accordance with
section B of article 1;
( b ) Of signatures, ratifications and accessions in
accordance with article 39;
( c ) Of declarations and notifications in accordance with
( d ) Of reservations and withdrawals in accordance with
( e ) Of the date on which this Convention will come into
force in accordance with article 43;
( f ) Of denunciations and notifications in accordance with
( g ) Of requests for revision in accordance with article
In faith whereof the undersigned, duly authorized, have signed
this Convention on behalf of their respective Governments.
Done at Geneva, this twenty-eighth day of July, one thousand nine
hundred and fifty-one, in a single copy, of which the English and
French texts are equally authentic and which shall remain deposited
in the archives of the United Nations, and certified true copies of
which shall be delivered to all Members of the United Nations and to
the non-member States referred to in article 39.