Protocol No. 7 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental
Freedoms, as amended by Protocol No. 11
Headings of articles added and text amended according to the
provisions of Protocol No. 11 (ETS No. 155) as from its entry into force on 1 November
The member States of the Council of Europe signatory hereto,
Being resolved to take further steps to ensure the collective enforcement of certain
rights and freedoms by means of the Convention for the Protection of
Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms signed at Rome on 4 November 1950 (hereinafter
referred to as "the Convention"),
Have agreed as follows:
- An alien lawfully resident in the territory of a State shall not be expelled therefrom
except in pursuance of a decision reached in accordance with law and shall be allowed:
- to submit reasons against his expulsion,
- to have his case reviewed, and
- to be represented for these purposes before the competent authority or a person or
persons designated by that authority.
- An alien may be expelled before the exercise of his rights under paragraph 1.a, b and c
of this Article, when such expulsion is necessary in the interests of public order or is
grounded on reasons of national security.
- Everyone convicted of a criminal offence by a tribunal shall have the right to have his
conviction or sentence reviewed by a higher tribunal. The exercise of this right,
including the grounds on which it may be exercised, shall be governed by law.
- This right may be subject to exceptions in regard to offences of a minor character, as
prescribed by law, or in cases in which the person concerned was tried in the first
instance by the highest tribunal or was convicted following an appeal against acquittal.
When a person has by a final decision been convicted of a criminal offence and when
subsequently his conviction has been reversed, or he has been pardoned, on the ground that
a new or newly discovered fact shows conclusively that there has been a miscarriage of
justice, the person who has suffered punishment as a result of such conviction shall be
compensated according to the law or the practice of the State concerned, unless it is
proved that the non-disclosure of the unknown fact in time is wholly or partly
attributable to him.
- No one shall be liable to be tried or punished again in criminal proceedings under the
jurisdiction of the same State for an offence for which he has already been finally
acquitted or convicted in accordance with the law and penal procedure of that State.
- The provisions of the preceding paragraph shall not prevent the reopening of the case in
accordance with the law and penal procedure of the State concerned, if there is evidence
of new or newly discovered facts, or if there has been a fundamental defect in the
previous proceedings, which could affect the outcome of the case.
- No derogation from this Article shall be made under Article 15 of the Convention.
Spouses shall enjoy equality of rights and responsibilities of a private law character
between them, and in their relations with their children, as to marriage, during marriage
and in the event of its dissolution. This Article shall not prevent States from taking
such measures as are necessary in the interests of the children.
- Any State may at the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of
ratification, acceptance or approval, specify the territory or territories to which the
Protocol shall apply and state the extent to which it undertakes that the provisions of
this Protocol shall apply to such territory or territories.
- Any State may at any later date, by a declaration addressed to the Secretary General of
the Council of Europe, extend the application of this Protocol to any other territory
specified in the declaration. In respect of such territory the Protocol shall enter into
force on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of two months
after the date of receipt by the Secretary General of such declaration.
- Any declaration made under the two preceding paragraphs may, in respect of any territory
specified in such declaration, be withdrawn or modified by a notification addressed to the
Secretary General. The withdrawal or modification shall become effective on the first day
of the month following the expiration of a period of two months after the date of receipt
of such notification by the Secretary General.
- 1A declaration made in accordance with this
Article shall be deemed to have been made in accordance with paragraph 1 of Article 56 of
- The territory of any State to which this Protocol applies by virtue of ratification,
acceptance or approval by that State, and each territory to which this Protocol is applied
by virtue of a declaration by that State under this Article, may be treated as separate
territories for the purpose of the reference in Article 1 to the territory of a State.
- 2Any State which has made a declaration in
accordance with paragraph 1 or 2 of this Article may at any time thereafter declare on
behalf of one or more of the territories to which the declaration relates that it accepts
the competence of the Court to receive applications from individuals, non-governmental
organisations or groups of individuals as provided in Article 34 of the Convention in
respect of Articles 1 to 5 of this Protocol.
Chart of Declarations under former paragraph 2 of
As between the States Parties, the provisions of Articles 1 to 6 of this Protocol shall
be regarded as additional Articles to the Convention, and all the provisions of the
Convention shall apply accordingly.
This Protocol shall be open for signature by member States of the Council of Europe
which have signed the Convention. It is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval. A
member State of the Council of Europe may not ratify, accept or approve this Protocol
without previously or simultaneously ratifying the Convention. Instruments of
ratification, acceptance or approval shall be deposited with the Secretary General of the
Council of Europe.
- This Protocol shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the
expiration of a period of two months after the date on which seven member States of the
Council of Europe have expressed their consent to be bound by the Protocol in accordance
with the provisions of Article 8.
- In respect of any member State which subsequently expresses its consent to be bound by
it, the Protocol shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the
expiration of a period of two months after the date of the deposit of the instrument of
ratification, acceptance or approval.
The Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall notify all the member States of
the Council of Europe of:
- any signature;
- the deposit of any instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval;
- any date of entry into force of this Protocol in accordance with Articles 6 and 9;
- any other act, notification or declaration relating to this Protocol.
In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorised thereto, have signed this
Done at Strasbourg, this 22nd day of November 1984, in English and French, both texts
being equally authentic, in a single copy which shall be deposited in the archives of the
Council of Europe. The Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall transmit certified
copies to each member State of the Council of Europe.
- Text amended according to the provisions of Protocol No. 11 (ETS No.
- Text added according to the provisions of Protocol No. 11 (ETS No. 155).